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In his book titled “Jannatul Ma’waa”, the researcher Allama shaykh Muhammad al-Husayn Kashif al-Ghitta’ speaking about the Tabataba’is said, “We rare to witness the knowledge being conveyed in one family from one member to another, keeping the honor of their ancestors. I say: it is no doubt that the respected family of our shaykh is one of those families. His family could hold nobility, antiquity, glory, and veneration along a deep-rooted history filled with significant events in politics and economy in the Islamic Gulf. We would like here to refer to two essential points, one is that this family “Al-`Asfoor” has been called with this name in the last two centuries and was lately well known with that title until today.
The second point is that it is important to refer to the meaning of the title “Al-`Asfoor” which later on became the symbol of this family, especially the founder of their state “Al-`Asfooriyah State”. Does the title refer to the known bird “sparrow” or does it refer to another meaning? Now let us display the meanings of this word in Arabic, depending on al-Kahleel ibn Ahmad al-Faraheedi’s book titiled “Kitab al-`Ayn” (may Allah have mercy upon him). Al-Faraheedi has mentioned six meanings for the word “al`Asfoor”:
1- “al-`Asfoor”: male bird.
2- “al-`Asfoor”: male locust.
3- “al-`Asfoor”: the horse’s forelock (not so long to reach its muzzle).
4- “al-`Asfoor”: a piece of brain beneath a hollow separated by a piece of skin, as mentioned in a poem verse:
a strike by which one’s head may be separated from its bed (neck),
or from the mother of head’s baby, or “al-`Asfoor”.
“al-`Asfoor” (in a camel litter): a swallow-like piece of wood and situated in the front of a litter joined to other wood pieces. The famous poet al-Tirimmah said, “like one whose “al-`Asfoor” has been recently repaired.”
Now you have known that, we say that: Know that the Arabs were putting names derived from bravery, courage, horsemanship, and rudeness. That was their common custom and unchangeable rule because of the unstable life and continuous state of readiness. The Arabs were enjoying that because they regarded that as a symbol of power and a factor that puts horror and panic inside their enemies’ hearts. This is more clear in some traditions narrated by al-Sadooq (may Allah be pleased with him) in the book titled “`Uyoon Akhbar al-Ridha (s.a.)” with his chain from Ahmad ibn Ashyam from Imam al-Ridha (s.a.) that he asked him (s.a.): “`May I be sacrificed on behalf of you, why did the Arabs called their sons with names like “dog”, “tiger”, “cheetah” and so on’? He (s.a.) said: `The Arabs were warriors, and they used such names in order to frighten their enemies, and they were calling their slaves with names like “easiness”, “blessed”, and so on because they believed such names to have good omen for them.”.
According to what we have said, it seems illogical to think that the word “al-`Asfoor” refers to (sparrow) because it shall then have silly meaning which may be considered as defamation of this unique character especially if we were aware of his nobility and high dignity, and his being a knight and brave among his family and tribe. So, the only meaning we may think about is the fourth meaning which is more appropriate of that time (a piece of brain beneath a hollow separated by a piece of skin), because of the important job of this section of brain the individual’s behavior and life, as proved by science nowadays. Or maybe the fifth meaning (a swallow-like piece of wood and situated in the front of a litter joined to other wood pieces) to represent priority and progression. The last meaning (i.e. the fifth) seems to be more logical.
In his book “The Past and Present Time of Bahrain”, the late shaykh Ibraheem al-Mubarak (may Allah have mercy upon him) said, “It is said that the origin of the `Asfoors returns to Bani Haajar (the Najdites), but historical records have different opinion (to which we will mention later).”
In another place, shaykh al-Mubarak said, “It was known among the people that the `Asfoors are from Najd, but the names of their ancestors (which we have mentioned from historians) do not seem to be like those used by the people of Najd.”
I say that the names he mentioned are not all the names; he mentioned the ancestors till (Shaybah). Moreover, it is not logical to believe that the `Asfoors ancestors are from Najd only because they were dwelling in that territory (as we shall know that later) due that immigration and moving from a place to another looking for pasture and other economic sources to fight against starvation, thirst, poverty, and neediness was the natural attribute of the whole tribes of the Arab peninsula in that time. Therefore, the moving of a tribe from this place to that was ordinary action. This is verified by the known researcher allama shaykh Muhammad Ali (the grandson of the personality we are writing down his biography) in his book (the History of Bahrain). He said, “I have found in some Arab genealogies references that Bani `Asfoor are themselves Bani `Aqeel (a branch of the famous tribe `Amir son of Sa`sa`ah of the `Adnanis), and that they are Bani `Aqeel son of Ka`b son of Rabee`ah son of `Amir son of Sa`sa`ah. The Islamic famous poet Majnoon son of `Amir (whose name is Qays) is related to this very tribe.
In His book (The Origin of Shia and Their Roots), allama shaykh Muhammad Husayn Kashif al-Ghitaa’ said:
“Maybe the probability of that who said that Abdillah ibn Saba’, the Majnoon of Bani `Amir, and Abi Hilal, and the like are mere myths fabricated by storytellers and pleasure-seekers who they were attracted by pleasure seeking and voluptuary which have reached its utmost degree during the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, where the market of imagination and false stories became glorious, which in its role was main mean of joy and pleasure for the bourgeois class.”
In addition to that, Ibn al-Jawzi (in his book of history) said, “When Layla got married, Majnoon came to her husband (who was then sitting in front of a stove, in the winter) and said, `Have you embraced Layla before the dawn, or have you got a kiss from her?’ `In fact, yes!’ answered Layla’s husband.
Majnoon then took a piece of kindled coal in his hand and kept it between his hands until he fell down uncounscious.”
He added, “Majnoon died in 70 A.H., that is what has been narrated in the Kashkool of our shaykh al-Baha’I (may Allah have mercy upon him).” His speech finishes here (may he be honored).
I say: If that is the truth, then how could one say that that was mere myth and a false personality fabricated by the storytellers? And, if that is true regarding Majnoon Layla, then we cannot dismiss suspicion from any other personality who were known in the history, because this is not logical way of research and history writing.
We have found that this noble family returns to the `Ilaan (the son of Holy Prophet’s(s.w.) grandfather) Mudhar son of Nizar son of Ma`d son of `Adnan (about whom the Holy Prophet(s.w.) has said: If you wanted to count my ancestors, stop when you reach `Adnan.
We can see now that in the beginning,this family was dwelling close to the Quraysh because it is related to the Holy Prophet’s (s.w.) ancestors and was a branch of that genealogy, and gradually they left that place due to certain circumstances.
The biggest group related to al-`Asfoor after their first era in Quraysh is known as the tribe of “Bani `Aqeel” which returns to `Aqeel son of Ka`b son of Rabi`ah `Amir son of Sa`sa`ah. It is said that the homeland of this tribe was Najd (to which we have mentioned before). They migrated to this land leaving the Quraysh (their original home place). Many branches emerged from this tribe some of which are as follows:
1- Bani `Abadah.
2- Bani al-Muntafiq.
3- Bani Khafadjah.
4- Bani `Amir.
The ancient area of Iraq and Bahrain (beginning from Basra in the north till Oman in the south) was the homeland of these branches who dwelt there for centuries.
We said before that poverty, hardship, lack of pasture and water play great social role in the immigration of many tribes to where they could find the factors of habitation and build a new civilization. The Bani `Aqeels, as any other tribes, were affected by the same circumstances, so they were obliged to immigrate to Bahrain in the end of the 3rd Hidjri century (9th century A.D.), and dwelt in their new homeland beside other tribes like the tribe of Bani Bikr ibn Waa’il, Tameem, `Abdil Qays, Bani Saleem, …etc. Later on, this tribe became a powerful military force and therefore, and within a short period of time the al-`Asfoors could dominate a vast area of that country. Many of al-`Asfoor’s personalities reached high positions like military commandment and other military squads that are responsible for watching the routes, spreading security, arbitration, returning the rights to their owners for some money from other tribes, farmers, and pilgrims.
The al-`Asfoors were conquered by Bani Taghlib who could dominate large areas, and thus, the al-`Asfoors were forced to leave to Iraq.
After their glorious era in Bahrain, the al-`Asfoors migrated to Iraq where they encountered weakness in their social system and lost the political unity and were dispersed here and there. However, they remained there and could dominate Kufa, Basrah, Mosul, and the northwest desert of Iraq. Those areas were divided among the al-`Asfoors.
For Bani Khafadja, they dwelt the middle banks of the Euphrates during the fourth century (10th centuryA.D.) and could later on increase their activities. The Bani al-Muntafiq also were active in those days near to Basra by their leader al-Asfar (circa 378 A.H.).
As for Bani `Abadah and Bani `Amir, they could establish their state in Mosul and al-Jazirah (circa 380 A.H. / 990 A.D.) after their victory upon Bani Hamdan (a branch of the tribe Bani Taghlib) and their kings for a long time. But the conquered tribes repeated their severe attacks (with the support of the Seljukians) against this new force and this time they were able to have again their occupied lands, and Bani Kahfadjah, Bani `Amir, and Bani `Abadah retreated back to the southern part of Iraq and dwelt Basra, Wasit, and Kufa under the protection of their cousins, Bani al-Muntafiq who could keep their domination in those lands.
Bani `Amir in Bahrain Again:
Bani `Amir in Bahrain Again:
Later on, Bani `Amir became eager to return to their first homeland, Bahrain, so they performed some attacks on Bani Taghlib and were able to have their domination on the routes and the economical and commercial activity, and by this event, Bani `Amir became again the masters of Bedouin (between Basra and Oman) under the leadership of Ghufaylah. On the other hand, Bahrain, with its vast and extended bounders, was under the power of `Uyooniyyoons who selected al-Ahsaa’ to be the capital of their state. The `Uyooniyyoons were able to protect their bounders and benefits by the assistance of other tribes. When Bani `Amir became stronger, they forced price al-`Uyooni to pay tribute as a compensation for their protecting the trade routes, pilgrims, imposing security, making peace treaties among the tribes, protecting countryside and other agricultural land against the attacks of highwaymen. During that, many cases of marital relationship occurred between the `Uyooniyyoons and Bani `Amir (to which we shall refer later). After the passing of many years, a stronger prince came to rule over Bani `Amir; he is prince Rashid son of `Umayrah son of Sinan son of Ghufaylah (the most powerful branch of the tribe Bani `Amir in whose hands was the central leadership of the tribe) in the last years of the sixth century after Hijra.
During the rule of this prince, Muhammad son of Abi al-Husayn (the prince of the `Uyooniyyoons) married the daughter of al-Miqdad son of Sinan son of Ghufaylah (the niece of prince Rashid – mentioned in the above lines). Muhammad son of Abi al-Husayn was assassinated by one of his relatives named Ghurayr son of al-Hasan and became the ruler of the `Uyooniyyoons. But prince al-Fadhl (the son of prince Muhammad) sought his maternal uncle’s support whose name was al-Husayn son al-Miqdad son of Sinan (who was then the leader of a branch of the tribe Bani `Amir) and the succor of the Abbasid caliph al-Nasir li Dinillah (570-622 A.H. / 1180-1225 A.D.).
Prince al-Fadhl, with the succor of that caliph, could reign again, and afterwards, he gave precious gifts and presents like fertile lands, plentiful wells of water, orchids in the island of Awaal to his uncle and to the Bani `Amirs for their helping him to pass his crisis. He also divided important places of fishing among them, and donated them powerful commercial ships and diving boats. This had for great extent increased their political influence.
Many years later, the kings of Bani Qaysar (who were dwelling the island of Qays, the heart of controlling commerce in the Gulf) performed many attacks on the shores and the island of Bahrain. These attacks obliged prince al-Fadhl (the `Uyooni ruler) to make a peace treaty with Bani Qaysar but was unfair one to the Bahrain economy.
According to the mentioned treaty, the Bani Qaysar owned a great proportion of the income of the Qateef’s and Ahsaa’ orchids, and also the diving income of Bahrain, and as a result of that, the `Uyooniyyoons were deprived from their main income, and gradually the `Uyooniyyoons state became weaker and were dispersed by the pressure of Bani `Amir’s branches inside the state and the kings of Bani Qaysar outside it. This case created riot and worry among the Bahrain high class people and knew that the `Uyooniyyoons cannot defend them or establish security anymore, the matter which shall cause their commercial benefits to face serious danger by Bani `Amir who decided to overrule the central authority of the `Uyooniyyoons’ state. Therefore, they got no choice but to satisfy the Bani `Amirs with money and gifts, and build stable personal relationship with them. They even accepted to support Bani `Amir against. Ibraheem son of Abdillah son of Abi Jarwan (a well-known rich from Ahsaa’) was the first who conspired against the `Uyooniyyoons.
The chiefs of al-Ahsaa’ agreed to submit the government to the experienced leader of Bani `Amir shaykh `Asfoor son of Rashid son of `Umayrah. This conveying occurred without shedding even one drop of blood. Later on, the `Uyooni prince al-Fadhl son of Muhammad son of Mas`uood was arrested and exiled from al-Ahsaa’, and the property of his family was seized too, while other people lived without disturbance.
Thus, Bani `Amir got every corner in the government and by this, the `Uyooni dynasty was ended in 651 A.H. (established in 467 A.H. / 1074 A.D.), and al-Ahsaa’ became the capital of their young state as it was before.
The Bani `Amirs could keep some political features during their state in the seventh and eighth centuries after Hijra, both in Bahrain and Yamamah. Many historians agreed on that, like Ibn Sa`eed al-Maghribi (d.685 A.H. / 1286 A.D.), al-Himdani (known as Ibn Zamakh, died in the beginning of the eighth century after Hijra, Ibn Fadhlullah al-`Amri (d.749 A.H. / 1384 A.D.) and Ibn Khaldoon (808 A.H. / 1405 A.D.)
Ibn Sa`eed al-Maghribi said, “I asked some people of Bahrain in 651 A.H. (1254 A.D.) in the Holy city of Medina about Bahrain; they said, `The rulers there are the Bani `Amirs son of `Aqeel and `Asfoor and his sons are the owners of al-Ahsaa’, their capital.” Another historical texts verify the influence of Bani `Asfoor in Yamamah, saying: I asked the Arab of Bahrain: To whom does Yamamah belong? They said: to the Arab of Qays `Ilaan and the Bani Hanifahs has nothing to do with that. Another clearer text said, “The Bani Kilab ruled Yamamah, and the rule of `Asfoor and his sons lasted until the year 650.
It is worthy to mention here that it is only Ibn Khaldoon who has written that the al-`Asfoors have overruled Oman too. They have established amicable political relations with the states around them, especially with the Salgharis (the Persian Ataabikis), the Mameluks of Egypt, the Moguls in Iraq and Iran, the Tayyibs (the rulers of Persia), the rulers from Bani Qaysar (in the island of Qays), and the kingdom of Hormoz.
In the year 805, they were smashed with a calamity. After 150 years from the establishment of their state, a person called Jarwan made an uprising against them and established an independent state on a piece of their land by force. In the same time, Firuz Shah occupied the major portion of the state. The latter could overrule al-Ahsaa’, al-Qateef, and Hormoz until the year 819 A.H. / 1417 A.D., and then came his son Sayfuddin Mahaar whose ruling lasted until the year 840 A.H. / 1436 A.D.
In spite of those events, Bani al-`Asfoor remained powerful with other branches of Bani `Amir’s tribe, keeping their economical influence, and living in distinguishing respect and honor.
Moreover, the al-`Asfoors were waiting for an appropriate opportunity to have their past glory and political high rank again. This dream became true by one of their branches called Bani Jabr who could return the ruling of Bani `Amir over Bahrain around the middle of the ninth century after Hijra (circa 15th century A.D.). This dynasty lasted until for about 150 years. Many events happened in this period of time which we have not enough place to narrate all of it; instead, we recommend that you return to the magazine titled (al-Wathiqah), 3rd issue (volume 2) printed in 1403 A.H. by the Center for Historical Document (Bahrain) in which the researcher shall find many details with references that have referred to their history. On the other hand, we have discovered many other historical records for which we beg Allah the Exalted to enable us to mention them in our book titled “the history of al-`Asfoors”.
As for the offspring of prince `Asfoor (the finder of the `Asfoori state mentioned before); they migrated in that time towards the island of Awaal (the recent Bahrain) and dwelt in the village of Daraaz which later became their active economical center and dwelling place. Having good talents in religion, they became specialized in religious sciences, and this family could bring up an elite of learned personalities who reached the highest rank of glory and eminence, to which we shall later refer.
In his lectures, al-Asfahani said, “A thirsty man who was wandering in a certain land reached a tent and sat there for rest. A few minutes later, a girl passed by him holding two jars; one is filled with water and the other milk. The man asked her about her tribe; she said, `I am from Bani `Amir.’ He said: The tribe whose a poet says: Behold! The garments of Bani `Amir shall not be torn because of misery as long as they have their skins on?’ The girl from Bani `Amir was shocked and broke the jars and said: O uncle! Who are you? `I am from the tribe of Taym.’ Answered the man. The girl immediately said: The tribe about whom a poet has said: The tribe of Tamim can trace the ways to misery more than a bird! The man said: No, I mean I am from Bahilah. The girl said: If the wife of a man from Bahila gives birth to a child, then be sure that a miser has been added to the misers! Then the man said: I am from the tribe of Asad. The girl said: I am not proud to have a thousand dinars a day due that my mother is from Asad! When the people of Asad hear their dogs’ barking, they know that some guests are coming to them, so they ask their mother to piss on the fire so that the guests may think that there is no one in those tents (because of their misery)!! The man said: I am from `Abs. The girl said: If a woman from `Abs gives birth to a child, tell her that her child will be benefited as a miser! The man said: I am from Qayn. The girl said: If a woman from Qayn sneezes then one must have coition with her because her sneezing is a symbol that she is eager for coition!! The man said: I am from Kalb. The girl said: If you see the hands of a woman from Kalb are colored with Henna, then her father must give her to a man as his wife because he shall then not be sure she won’t commit adultery!! The man said: I am from Thaqeef. The girl said: The people of Thaqeef are not noble; their only father is misguidance. The man said: I am from Khuza`ah. The girl said: When the people of Khuza`ah become drunk, they may sell the House of Allah only for a jar of wine and some garments! The man said: I am from Jurm. The girl said: A man who fears his Lord and obeys him is the best man even if his tribe was Jurm! The man said: I am from Hanifah. The girl said: It is said that this tribe had once eaten its idol when they were about to die of starvation! The man said: I am from `Abdil Qays. The girl said: The people of `Abdil Qays are knows for their fizzles which are like storms! The man then became angry and said: The fact is that I am from Iblis (devil)! The girl said: I am wonder how can Iblis lose his way; woe to his ban intention! He lost his way when he refused to bow for Adam, and then became the pimp of his offspring!! The man was exhausted and said: That enough! The girl said: Go to hell! If you decide to be some people’s guest then do not forget their kindness!!
During mentioning the village of Duraaz, shaykh Yousif in his book titled “The Pearl of Bahrain” said: It is the village of our ancestors.
Sahykh Ibraheem al-Mubarak (may Allah have mercy upon him) said in his book “The Past and Present Time of Bahrain”: It is spelled as (Duraaz), and it is Persian word means (long) because it is located on the north ocean, from the west to east. This village is the homeland of al-`Asfooriyyoon. The famous spring “`Ayn al-Sajoor” which has been dried in the time of Abdil Malik Ibn Marwan, is in this village.
During his detailed speech about the story of Abdil Malik Ibn Marwan, the people of Bagrain, and the famous spring “`Ayn al-Sajoor” after his conquering Bahrain, shaykh Yousif (q.s.) added in his Kaskool:
“As for the famous spring “`Ayn al-Sajoor” mentioned in the end of the story; it is located in our village al-Duraaz in Bahrain. It is situated in west of Bahrain, near the shore. The historical excavation showed that this spring was full of water in the past times.
That cursed has ordered his men to fill it with stones and rocks in order to remove it. It remained like that until the time of ruling of the above-mentioned Hajj Yousif son of Nasir (a rich and famous man of Bahrain and a man known for his cleverness in finding underground water). This man who had discovered many springs before, opened a hole in the west side and could bring out water from that spring again. He set up tents round that spring and employed a number of workers who throw away the rocks and stone which were in that spring. It is said that those rocks were very big and heavy that even a hundred men cannot pull one of them.
That cursed brought those rocks from a village near Bahrain called (Jadaa). Hajj Yousif son of Nasir and his workers worked hard and when the water of that spring was about to gush from it, a worker of Hajj Yousif son of Nasir came to him and said: I have seen in a dream that this spring is formed as a woman and she needs a big ox. Hajj Yousif son of Nasir thought that he could be the above-mentioned ox, so he became afraid and sick, then he died after a while, and the well remained as it is until this day. It is said that the worker uttered those words only for a joke and that he aimed that Hajj Yousif son of Nasir make an offering and give him and other workers some meat. Some people of Bahrain used those rocks pulled from that well in building their houses while the rest are still accumulated round the well itself. It is said that tens of people were needed to pull one of those rocks and Allah alone knows best the fact of matters.”
I say: The reason why people dwelt that village is that because it was situated near the seaside and its long shore. Also because most of them were pearl divers and traders due that the shore there was full of pearls, and because this village had many springs of natural water.
In the lifetime of the famous Allamah, our grandfather shaykh Husayn al-Bahrani (one of those who were licensed to trade with pearls), many calamities and foreign attacks occurred against Bahrain. He then was forced to move to the village of Shakhoorah (two kilometers from the village of Duraaz). Many families of his tribe, who encompassed their leader with protection and carefulness moved also with him to the new village, while other families remained the village of al-Duraaz aiming to protect the property and houses of their tribe.
When Allamah shaykh Husayn al-Bahrani dwelt there, he began to buy some houses for his and his family residence. He also built a saloon for his study and research which remained long years during his honored life as a place for knowledge and virtue, and a caravansary for many dignities. This saloon became great club for his study and research in Bahrain and attracted many scholars from around the village. This cultural club attracted also the enemies of Ahlul Bayt (s.a.) to increase their attacks on the shore of al-Duraaz, al-Badee`, and other seaside places aiming to uproot it and to silence its lion and sword. The enemies could pass the natural obstacles and entered the island of Bahrain. They used to attack the people there and later on they could attack the house of Allamah, our grandfather shaykh Husayn al-Bahrani who were martyred with a spear.
After the martyrdom of Allamah, our grandfather shaykh Husayn al-Bahrani (q.s.) and after the Bedouin’s conquest over the island, most of his sons and cousins fled to the lands round them like the eastern territory of the Arabic Peninsula, Basra, Kerbala, Khozestan (Doreq, Falahiyyah, etc.), Bushire, Shiraz, Kazeroon, Jahrum, Isfahan, Fesa, Yazd, and Tehran.
In the following lines, we shall try to focus more on the places in which they have dwelt and relate the history of their movements, and mention some of their work and offspring, by the will of Allah the Exalted.
In his book titled “Nuqaba’ al-Bashar” (The Masters of People), allamah Agha Buzurg al-Tehrani said: “Al-`Asfoors are ancient family known for their knowledge and a number of scholars, especially in the last century.”
In his foreword on the book called “al-Hadaa’iq”, sayyid Abdil `Aziz Tabataba’I said: “The family of our shaykh is known for its knowledge. Many personalities became famous and are considered as the elite of this tribe and eminent people of this Ummah. They served the right, knowledge, Shia, and Islam religion.”
I say: in its glorious era of knowledge, this family brought up about two hundred eminent personalities and scholars especially in the four centuries. The knowledge activities of this family didn’t restricted within Bahrain or other near places, it has rather spread outside it, especially to Iraq and Iran.
Some of those who are known for their knowledge and eminent rank, are two marji’ who were eminent scholars and known in most of the countries, and also they later became this family’s symbols of pride and glory and the crown of Muslims; the first marji` is the researcher of Bahrain shaykh Yousif and the second is shaykh Yousif’s nephew, our grandfather allamah shaykh Husayn al-Bahrani.
The below figure shows the first scientific branch of this family:
The Biography of our Master, the Eminent Faqih, the traditionist, shaykh Yousif al-Bahrani (q.s.) (d.1186 A.H.), by the Eminent Researcher sayyid Abdil `Aziz Tabataba’i:
In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate
Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all Being, and may the peace of Him be upon Muhammad, the Master of all Messengers, and his pure progeny.
Many generations and centuries passed since the era of Tabi`een (followers) and the righteous (pbut) until this day, and our history of science is full of unique heroes, unique in their religious Jihad (religious war), and their trustful conveyance of sacred mission to their society. Many personalities became genius and a lot of eminent scholars emerged from among us, such as peerless researchers and high-ranked dignities. This case remained for many generations and centuries. In every generation there comes a bunch of equal men of the Ummah of Muhammad (s.w.) who stood to refute the interpretation of the seekers of false, the forgery of extremists, and the Baatil saying of the ignorants(1): Referring to the traditions concerning this subject like that narrated by Kishshi with his chain from Abi Abdillah (s.a.) from the Holy Prophet (s.w.) that he said: “In each century, there will be some equal men who will refute the interpretation of the seekers of false…” This tradition is also narrated by allamah Majlisi (q.s.) in the book titled “Bihaar al-Anwaar”, vol.II, p.92; and vol.XVI, 1376 edition.
If we study their history (q.s.) we will find that they have performed their job in the best way in every time and era, and they did their best to serve their sacred religion and the humanity with their books and writings, with their pens and feet, with their interpretation and thumbs, with their struggle and strength, and finally with all that Allah has donated them. Therefore, they became like stars illuminating in the heart of the sky of glory and greatness, and like comets shining here and there. May Allah grant them the best reward on behalf of His Messenger, religion, and His Ummah.
The writings of those eminent people differ in eternity and acceptance, like fate and fortune that differ in most circumstances. Some writings became very famous, and were studied by various scientific assemblies and centers, and the eminent scholars with pride and glory, and many annotations were made on them, as if Allah the Exalted has accepted them and pleasure with those works, and so He ordained that they would be eternal without perishing; on the contrary, they would remain as glorious as they were when they first have been written.
The most remarkable books of those writings, is this one which is ready for print (al-Hadaa’iq al-Nadhira Fi Ahkaam al-`Itrah al-Tahira) by the Master, the Eminent Faqih, the traditionist, shaykh Yousif al-Bahrani al-Durazi whose fame has spread every corner of the horizon and states, and whose echo filled the hearts of all beings. It is enough to refer to his fame that he was known with (the author of al-Hadaa’iq). We will give a brief explanation about this book later, but as for the author of this book; here is a summary of his biography.
He is Master, the Eminent Faqih, the traditionist, shaykh Yousif the son of great allamah and Hujjah, the unique and peerless shaykh Ahmad son of Ibraheem son of Ahmad son of Saleh son of Ahmad son of `Asfoor son of Ahmad son of Abdul Husayn son of `Atiyyah son of Shaybah al-Durazi al-Bahrani. He was born in the village of (Mahooz) to which the unique shaykh Ahmad (the author’s father) had migrated before from his homeland (Duraz) to finish his high studies under the supervision of his master the great researcher shaykh Salman al-Mahoozi. Shaykh Ahmad took his family with him in his migration, and dwelt in Mahooz where he could learn more from his master (above-mentioned).
During his residence there, shaykh Ahmad was granted a son (the author) from the Lord in 1107 A.H.
Because shaykh Yousif was the first son, his paternal grandfather loved him very much. His grandfather was the pious and generous Haj Ibraheem, a merchant who got some ships and divers for pearls. Shaykh Yousif was brought up by his kind grandfather shaykh Ibraheem. Shaykh Yousif’s grandfather hired a private teacher and shaykh Yousif began to have some studying, reading and writing at home, until he completed that. Then his father started bringing him up with kindness and clemency, and began to teach him himself. So, he started teaching him the religious sciences and Arabic literature, and other kinds of sciences. Shaykh Yousif then became skillful in all those sciences especially eloquence and became very famous. We shall deal this point when we come to discuss his studies. Shaykh Yousif continued his studying under his father’s supervision until his death which affected the Ummah and affected shaykh Yousif personally, whose life was full of calamities, as the life has spared him for such circumstances since he was still young until he died without neglecting his study or writing.
When shaykh Yousif was only five years, riots, uprisings, and interior events began in his homeland (Bahrain). For example, the two tribes (Hawlah) and (`Atoob) started severe wars between them, and they became tyrants and spread corruption here and there. This lasted many years, and the people of Bahrain were undergoing a calamity after another without any period for peace or cease-fire. However, the repeated attacks of the Kharidjites on Bahrain. They could besiege Bahrain in the third year and occupied it by force. This attack was horrible one; they killed many people, robbed a lot of their properties and destroyed the rest. The chiefs of the country then were forced to flee leaving their homeland behind, and accompanying their families. One of those were the father of the author who migrated to al-Qateef leaving shaykh Yousif, his eldest son in that calamity and hardship haply he protects the remaining of his properties and furniture especially his books which many of them were stolen. So shaykh Yousif remained behind hoping that he could send the remaining books to his father secretly. Shaykh Yousif spent there many years, after that he joined his father in al-Qateef. His father, on one hand did not like his staying in al-Qateef because he got a big family while he was somehow needy; on the other hand he was upset by the heartbreaking news of his homeland Bahrain and used to think seriously about that. Later on, he heard that a campaign reached Bahrain from Iran to rescue it from the occupiers, the Kharidjites, so he remained watching the situation. Days after that, shaykh Ahmad heard the news that said that the Iranian campaign was defeated by the Kharidjites and all the Persian soldiers were killed. They also burned every thing, even the house of shaykh Ahmad. When shaykh Ahmad heard that, he became very sad and sick. He remained sick for about two months then he died; Allah chose him to dwell the eternal abode in the dawn of the 22nd of Safar 1131 A.H.
Shaykh Yousif was the eldest son. He was then twenty-four years, and he began to work and became the custodian of his big family which was a big burden on the shoulders of a weak young man. Shaykh Yousif remained two years studying under the supervision of the great allamah shaykh Husayn al-Mahoozi, until Bahrain was liberated and rescued from the Kharidjites according to peace treaty. According to this treaty, huge amount was paid to the Kharidjites. After that, shaykh Yousif decided to return to Bahrain. He remained there for many years continuing his study under the supervision of shaykh Ahmad son of Abdullah al-Biladi al-Bahraini and shaykh Abdullah son of Ali al-Biladi al-Bahraini. Shaykh Yousif then was donated by Allah the Exalted to perform pilgrimage. During his return, he passed by al-Qateef, and he remained there to study Hadith with his teacher allamah shaykh al-Mahoozi (above-mentioned). Shaykh Yousif then was granted permission by his master al-Mahoozi to recite from him. Then he returned again to Bahrain, but he was very upset because of his debts and his big family, and because the civil wars and riots inside Bahrain. So, shaykh Yousif was obliged to travel to Iran after the death of Shah Sultan Husayn the Safavid by the Afghans.
After a short time, again that city was smashed with calamity, and its people were dispersed here and there, their properties have been robbed, and their women were ravished. Shaykh Yousif was forced to leave that place and went towards the countryside and dwelt a village called (Fesa) whose ruler then was the leader Muhammad Ali. This ruler respected shaykh Yousif very much, and so, the shaykh could spend most of his time with what he loved before, studying and teaching. He wrote many books and treatises, and in that village he wrote the famous book titled (al-Hadaa’iq al-Nadhira Fi Ahkaam al-`Itrah al-Tahira) and when he reached the chapter named “al-Aghsaal” (Washing Types); Na`eem Dan Khan, the tyrant of Shiraz, who made riots in this city before, led an uprising before the end of 1163. Again this side of country was smashed with calamities, which caused its people to disperse in the country. Na`eem Dan Khan killed Muhammad Ali the ruler of Shiraz, and attacked the house of shaykh Younis while he was sick, and robbed his properties and the most beloved of his books. Describing that situation, shaykh Younis composed a poem wherein he said: the gloomiest calamity that ailed my heart was at that time where I have lost my dearest books. Shaykh Younis, who was then ill, fled with his family empty-pocked towards the mountains and the wilderness, until at last he resided in Istihbanaat (Isfahan) and dwelt there where he also encountered many calamities for some time, as he remain like that for the rest of his life, from the beginning when he dwelt Shiraz, then Fesa, and Isfahan. He could not be far from it. He was fleeing from a calamity, but again he fell in another one greater than that. Anyhow, he was encountered with lots of disasters and encompassed with hardships. For this reason, our dearest shaykh made many poems wherein he described his life and hardships he had faced. One of those poems is that which he had sent from the city of Istihbanaat to his brothers complaining to them his situation and describing what he had encountered. Shaykh Younis began his poem with these lines: Ah! Who shall tell my youth time wherein I had many friends. It is a long poem, and it has been written in his book “al-Kashkool”, vol.II, page (237). The following lines are a part of that poem:
I am living in hard times wherein disasters are many and lots.
The houses became empty from their people who fled to the wilderness and hills.
These are in fact calamities that caused the eyes to drop lots of tears.
The fire of those calamities encompassed me, until I was forced to flee to the deserts and valleys.
The gloomiest calamity that ailed my heart was at that time where I have lost my dearest books.
The earth became narrow to me, and all doors have been closed in my face.
The calamities surrounded me while I was like fire, and I knew that as I close my book.
The most manifested phenomenon of this mujahid shaykh’s life that makes all researchers be proud of it and oblige them to pay respect to him, is his continuous work with all his ability, and his struggle to fulfill his tasks with love and happiness in spite of all bad circumstances and critical situations he had met. He used to spend his time in studying and do his best to compile books, and so, glory be to Him who granted him this soul which does not know tiredness nor despair, and which cannot be hindered by any obstacle. Sahykh Younis could compile very precious books (about fourty books) in those hard times, and in spite of stealing and robbing many of his books, many other were published, and lots of his works were shining in those dark years and periods, which lightened the way for the people. This matter has been mentioned by allamah al-Jabulqi in his book called “al-Rawdha al-Bahiyyah” when he said, “Let the compilers have lesson from the biography of this shaykh who has been smashed with all kinds of calamities; but in spite of that, he could compile very precious books…”.
From the moment when he reached Istihbanaat, shaykh Younis decided to leave Iran, and determined to dwell in Iraq, the land of the holy shrines, and the core of knowledge and vice. He began to make preparation for his going to Iraq, and after a short time he left Iran toward Iraq. He resided in the holy city of Kerbala’, which later became his final residence and eternal abode. Although we do not know the exact date when shaykh Younis came to Kerbala’, but as mentioned in some of his books; it seems that he arrived there before the year 1169 A.H. Shaykh Younis first resided in the holy place of al-Haa’ir where this sacred city was one of the greatest city of Shia knowledge. It competed al-Najaf al-Ashraf in knowledge and favor with its religious institutes and eminent scholars. Shaykh Younis arrived in Kerbala’ when the only marji` of the Shia was the great professor, and the teacher of the whole people, shaykh Waheed Bahbahani (q.s.), the reformer of Shia sect in the thirteenth century of Hidjra. In the lifetime of this great marji`, Kerbala’ was benefiting from glory and greatness, and reached the highest degrees of honor. It was full of eminent scholars, great knowledge seekers, high rank theologians, and known researchers who were the crowns of knowledge and the banners of favor. Shaykh Younis was also among those who were well-known for what he compiled of precious books, and so, he was known in the classes for his knowledge and teaching in Fiqh and Hadith. When shaykh Younis arrived Kerbala’ he was warmly welcomed by its scholars, and all religious men became glad of that. So, began to attend the circles of knowledge and teaching, and many students and scholars attended his lessons and lectures learning from his gushing knowledge, and the most eminent among his students were four scholars whose names were beginning with (Mahdi), and two other eminent scholars: (1) the author of the book called “al-Riyadh”, and (2) the author of the book titled “al-Qawaneen”, and many other eminent scholars who graduated from shaykh Younis’ school, and whom we will refer to their names under the title (His Students). Those scholars increased their knowledge when they attended shaykh Younis’ lectures and reached high ranks in Fiqh and Hadith. Shaykh Younis held many meetings and argumentat with the great master al-Muhaqqiq al-Waheed (q.s.) in the depth of knowledge and research, and some of them were lasting the whole night. Those argumentations were collected by our master al-Hujjah Abu Muhammad Sayyis Hasan al-Sadr in his book titled “Bughyat al-Wu`aat”, and from that time our great shaykh became the spiritual leader and the imam of his private masjid (located near al-Sahn al-Sultani, in front of his friend’s own masjid al-Waheed. This masjid was renewed last year). Shaykh Younis remained there for about twenty years, wherein he was the source of Fatwa, holding on his shoulders the responsibility of spiritual and religious duties, and lots of questions were reaching him from all over the world. He used to answer those questions either with mere fatwa or attached with simple examples and demonstrations. He also held the lectures from where everyone could sip from his knowledge. This was his habit in any place he reside and in anytime. During his residence in Kerbala’, shaykh Younis visited Najaf Ashraf, but we could not know the length of the time he spend there. But it seems that he has compiled his famous book “al-Durar al-Najafiyyah” during his stay in that sacred and holy city.
This section obliges us to specify a special part to discuss all that because of its importance. Shaykh Younis(q.s.) did not satisfy with teaching the people and the scholars of city only; he rather was tracing knowledge wherever it was. He was fond of knowledge, Fiqh, Hadith, and wisdom, and to seize them, he was forced to travel here and there, especially the mother of knowledge and scientific institutes in Iran and Iraq. These travels enabled him to meet lots of scholars and literate people in Fiqh and Hadith. Those were the remaining eminent people from the golden era of the Safavid (the most significant Islamic dynasty that served knowledge, science and supported the religious scholars). Shaykh Younis could visit Mecca, and other shrines of holy Imams (a.s.), and he many times visited Najaf Ashraf (the center of knowledge and science, and the capital of Fiqh and Hadith, and the club of favor and literature, and the place where all scholars and researchers are gathering) and he could meet its scholars and learned from its eminent marji`s. However, he did not satisfied with those great people, so he began to make relation with other scholars through correspondence and he was asking them about some religious dilemma, like the famous traditionist al-Gilani. Some of those correspondences have been collected in his famous Kashkool, before his meeting with al-Gilani. This has enabled him to dive in science more and more, especially in Fiqh and Hadith. Regarding those to whom he has referred in his book “al-Lu’lu’ah” as his masters, they are four:
1- His father the late Hujjah of knowledge, the unique shaykh Ahmad (mentioned the section “His Family”).
2- The Unique allamah shaykh Ahmad son of Abdullah son of al-Hasan son of Jamal al-Biladi al-Bahrani (d.1137 A.H.).
3- The researcher the hujjah shaykh Hasan son of shaykh Muhammad Ja`far al-Mahoozi (d.1171 A.H.). This shaykh is considered shaykh Younis’ greatest master in Fiqh and Hadith.
4- Shaykh Abdullah son of Ali son of Ahmad al-Biladi al-Bahrani (died in Shiraz in 1148 A.H.).
Shaykh Younis has also got some permission letters from four eminent scholars to narrate from them through their various chains mentioned in his book “al-Lu’lu’ah”, and he was permitted to give permission letter to others, read and listen. The two last shaykhs are some of those who have given him those permission letters.
3- Sayyid Abdullah son of sayyid Alawi al-Biladi al-Bahrani, and from his chain, shaykh Younis could narrate from his father shaykh Ahmad.
5- The great traditionist Mawla Muhammad Rafee` son of Faraj (known as Mawla Rafee` al-Gilani) who is regarded his best chain of narrators because he narrates from al-Majlisi himself.
We have mentioned before this that wherever our master shaykh Younis he dwell, many students who were thirsty for knowledge were gathering round him, and many others were attending his lectures and lessons, all benefiting from his science and ethics. Unfortunately, the historical records did not mention all of his Iranian students, especially the religious institute of Shiraz and also his students in Kerbala’ remained unknown in spite of his being the religious leader there for about twenty years, and in spite of its being full of thousands of scholars and researchers. However, only a few numbers of them were recorded in those records; some of them are as follows:
1- The expert in biographies, Abu Ali al-Ha’iri Muhammad son of Isma`eel, the author of the book titled “Muntaha al-Maqaal”.
2- Al-Muhaqqiq al-Qommi Mirza Abul Qasim, the author of “al-Qawaneen”.
3- Sayyid Ahmad al-`Attar al-Baghdadi (d. 1215 A.H.).
4- Sayyid Ahmad Talqaani al-Najafi (d. 1208 A.H.).
5- Shaykh Ahmad al-Haa’iri.
6- Shaykh Ahmad son of Muhammad (the author’s nephew whose biography shall be mentioned in (His Family).
7- Prince Sayyid Abdul Baqi son of Mir Muhammad Husayn al-Khawaatoon Abadi (the Majlisi’s grandson).
8- Shaykh Hasan son of Mawla Muhammad Ali al-Sabzewari al-Ha’iri.
9- Shaykh Husayn son of Muhammad (the author’s nephew and the accomplisher of the book titled “al-Hadaa’iq” whose biography shall be mentioned later.)
10- Sayyid Shams al-Deen al-Mar`ashi al-Husayni (the one famous in genealogy; d.1200 A.H., the grandfather of our hujjah Sayyid Shihab al-Deen al-Mar`ashi).
11- Shaykh Ali son of Ali al-Tasturi.
12- Shaykh Ali son of Rajab Ali.
13- Shaykh Muhammad Ali (known as Ibnis-Sultaan).
14- Prince Sayyid Ali al-Ha’iri (the author of “al-Riyaadh).
15- Shaykh MuHammad son of Ali al-Tasturi al-Ha’iri.
16- Haj Ma`soom.
17- Ayatullah Sayyid Mahdi Bahril `Uloom (d.1212 A.H.).
18- The great researcher al-Naraaqi Mawla Muhammad Mahdi al-Kashaani (the author of Mustanad al-Shia).
19- Ayatullah Sayyid Mirza Mahdi Shahrestani.
20- Sayyid Mirza Mahdi son of Hidayatullah Isfahaani Khuraasaani (martyred in 1216 A.H., and the teacher of Bahril `Uloom in philosophy, and it was him who gave him this title.)
21- Haj Mirza Yousif Tabataba’I Mar`ashi al-Qaadhi al-Tabreezi (d. 1242 A.H.).
It is clear to all of those who are acquainted with narrations and the permission letters of the shaykhs, that our shaykh Younis is the sparkling gem of all of them. To him end the chain of the permission letters and the circles of the narrations. This has been recorded by the hujjah allamah al-Noori in his book (Khatimat al-Mustadrak), and his two students the shaykhs and banner scholars, the two Razi shaykh hujjah Mirza Muhammad al-`Askari (the author of “al-Mustadrak `ala al-Bihaar”, d. on 28 Jumada al-Awwal 1371 A.H., in the eight volumes of that book “al-Mustadrak `ala Ijaazaat al-Bihaar”), and our shaykh the great researcher shaykh Agha Buzurg (the author of al-Tharee`a) in his section “the Ijaazaat of the last three centuries”, and in “al-Isnaad al-Musaffa ila Aal al-Mustafa”. Below are some of those people whom I could found among those to whom shaykh Younis has given them permission letters, so we have narrated according to our chains end to them who have narrated from shaykh Younis:
1- Shaykh Ahmad son of shaykh Hasan son of Ali son of Khalaf al-Damastani.
2- Shaykh Ahmad son of Muhammad (the author’s nephew).
3- Prince sayyid Abdul Baqi al-Husayni Khawaatoon Abadi al-Isfahaani (the Majlisi’s grandson, and the one who has given Bahr al-`Uloom.
4- Sahykh Husayn son of shaykh Muhammad, the author’s nephew and one of those who is given permission letter.
5- Shaykh Khalaf son of shaykh Abd Ali, the author’s nephew, and the second person that is given a permission letter to narrate. (We will refer to him in details in “His Family”.
6- Shaykh Zayn al-`Abideen son of Mawla Muhammad Kadhim. He was given a permission letter for the book titled “al-Tahtheeb” dated 1168 A.H.
7- Shaykh Sulayman son of Mu`tariq al-`Aamili.
8- Sayyid Shams al-Deen al-Husayni al-Tabreezi (the well-known genealogist), d. 1200 A.H.
9- Sayyid Abdul `Azeez son of Ahmad al-Musawi al-Najafi. His permission letter is dated 1167 A.H.
10- Sayyid Abdullah son of sayyid `Alawi al-Musawi al-Ghurayfi al-Bahrani (known as `Ateeq al-Husayn s.a.), who dwelt in Bahbahaan. He narrated from him with preface permission letter. His permission letter is dated 1153. We have referred to him before in “His Master”. It is worthy to mention that his permission letter is kept with allamah sayyid Shihab al-Deen al-Mar`ashi.
11- Shaykh Ali son of Husayn son of Falaah al-Bahrani.
12- Shaykh Ali son of Muhammas son of Ali son of Abdul Nabi son of Muhammad son of shaykh Sulayman al-Maqaabi al-Bahraani.
13- Prince sayyid Ali al-Ha’iri (the author of “al-Riyaadh”, and the nephew of al-Waheed al-Bahbahaani).
14- Ali son of Musa al-Bahrani.
15- Shaykh Muhammad Ali (known as Ibn al-Sultaan).
16- Shaykh Muhammad son of al-Hasan al-Bahrani.
17- Hajj Ma`soom.
18- Mawla Muhammad Mahdi al-Fatooni (one of the shaykhs who gave permission letters to Bahr al-`Uloom).
19- Mawla Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraaqi (the author of “al-Mustanad” and “Jaami` al-Sa`aadaat” and many other books.
20- Ayatullah sayyid Mahdi Bahr al-`Uloom al-Tabataba’I (d. 1212 A.H.). His permission letter is mentioned in the footnote of his book on genealogies.
21- Ayatullah sayyid Mirza Mahdi al-Shahrestani.
22- Sayyid Mirza Mahdi al-Radhawi al-Khuraasaani (martyred in 1216 A.H., as referred by him in his permission letter to sayyid Dildaar Ali Hindi.
23- Shaykh Musa son of Ali al-Bahrani.
24- Shaykh Nasir son of Muhammad al-Jaroodi al-Khatti al-Bahrani.
Below are some of eminent personalities who eulogized shaykh Younis:
1- His student Abu Ali al-Ha’iri (the author of “Muntaha al-Maqaal” or “Rijaal Abi Ali”) in the shaykh Younis’ biography written by him, said: An erudite learned, acquainted, skill, researcher, traditionist, pious, worshipper, righteous, and religious person. He is one of the greatest among our shaykhs and eminent scholars. (Allamah Mamqaani said almost the same words in his annotation).
2- His student prince Abdul Baaqi (the grandson of allamah al-Majlisi), said in “Muntakhab Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain”: He was erudite scholar, and learned researcher. He collected almost all intellectual and traditional sciences.
3- The great researcher shaykh Asadullah al-Tasturi, in his book “al-Maqaabis” said: He is a working scholars, complete researcher, a traditionist Faqih, eminent theologist, the elite of the learned, and the chief of the great scholars. He is the one who seized the highest step of piety, moderation, worshipping, favor, fortune, and morals. He is the pleased, pure, and pious. He was known for his favor in most countries, and was supported by Allah’s bliss.
4- The researcher al-Khunsaari, the author of “al-Rawdhaat” said: He is religious scholars, and human worker; our shaykh the greatest Faqih, the author of “al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah”, “al-Durar al-Najafiyyah” “Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain”, and many other eminent and famous books with which people have pleasure to read, and the eyes become happy to see. No one among the our superior sect has written such books for what they include of right information, straight and faithful ideas, eloquent style in writing, correct and stable method, sincerity in knowledge and work, having the same attributes of our ancestors, and avoiding the wicked attributes and qualifications of the offspring who only seek high positions.
5- Allamah and traditionist Mirza Muhammad Nisaaboori Ister Aabaadi said in his genealogy book: He was Faqih, traditionist and pious.
6- The author of “Nojoom al-Samaa’ Fi Taraajum al-`Ulamaa” said [translated to Arabic]: The author of “al-Hadaa’iq” is one of the late scholars, a well-learned in Hadith, an erudite Faqih, a very pious religious personality, and one of those who followed equity in the two schools of theoretician in law and traditionists
7- Allamah mawla Shafee` al-Jabulqi, in his great permission letter called “al-Rawdhah al-Bahiyyah Fi al-Ijaazaat al-Shafee`iyyah”, said: As for the traditionist and researcher shaykh Yousif (q.s.) the author of “al-Hadaa’iq”; he is one of the eminent personalities of this sect. He is full of knowledge, has precious compilations, pure in his speech, and erudite in narrated news from the Infallible Imams (s.a.). His accurate research lurks in the traditions narrated in his books especially that titled “al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah”. This book deserves to be written with light on the bright cheeks of the nymphs. All those who came after him has got benefit from this book “al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah” (May Allah reward him on behalf of Islam and Muslims the best reward). He was trustworthy, pious, worshipping and moderate… In general, this shaykh is considered a significant scholar among other scholars. See what calamities did this man faced, and in spite of that, we are still wondering how could he be busy in writing and compiling the most precious books?
8- The great allamah, and the traditionist al-Noori, in his book titled “Khatimat al-Mustadrik” and when he came to refer to Bahr al-`Uloom’s teachers, said: the seventh of them is the working scholar, the erudite traditionist, the religious Faqih…
9- Allamah mawla Habibullah Kashaani, in his book “Lubaab al-Alqaab”, said: The author of “al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah” was an erudite scholar and researching traditionist.
10- In the book titled “al-Durar al-Bahiyyah” he said: He was an erudite and researcher. He was a unique personality in his era. He wrote many books, and his compilation became so many. Allamah shaykh Ali al-Bahrani, the author of “Anwaar al-Badrayn Fi Taraajum `Ulama’ al-Ahsa’, al-Qateef wa al-Bahrain”, said: The working and honorable scholar, the erudite and noble sage, the peerless and unique, the allamah and the religious man of equity, and the most honorable shaykh Yousif… the author of “al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah” and other precious books, the shaykh of the shaykhs of Iraq and Bahrain, the personality that is pure from any impurity… He added: This sage shaykh is one of the greatest scholars of Islam and all religions, and one of those who were erudite in judgment and arbitration. All those who came after his time have referred to him and eulogized him in the best way for his knowledge, hard work, piety and nobility… In general, this great shaykh is considered one of the most eminent scholars of Islam.
11- The seal of the traditionists, allamah al-Qummi, in the book titled “al-Fawaa’id al-Radhawiyyah” said [translated into Arabic]: He is the scholar and working worshipper, the traditionist and pious, the erudite and researcher, the skill and the noble, the marji` of the eminent Faqihs and the Faqih of Ahlul Bayt (s.a.), the religious scholar, the Faqih of Bahrain, the author of useful and remarkable books, among which the “al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah Fi Ahkam al-`Itrah al-Tahirah” is the best. This book is a noble and useful book. He also said in the book titled “Hadiyyatul Ahbab”: He is an erudite scholar, complete pious traditionist, and the marji` of eminent Faqihs of Ahlul Bayt (s.a.).
12- Our great shaykh, allamah and unique researcher Ameeni (May Allah please the whole Ummah with his existence) in his book “The Martyrs of Virtue”, said: The Faqih of the sect, and its great traditionist shaykh Yousif son of Ahmad has a book titled “al-Hadaa’iq” which is known among the scholars is considered to be a book that contains much knowledge and refers clearly to its author’s knowledge and familiarity in all sciences, especially in Fiqh and Hadith. His other book “Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain” too discloses that this personality has much knowledge about known dignitaries and the chain of shaykhs’ permission letters.
13- Allamah Khiyaabaani, in his book “Rayhanatul Adab Fi al-Ma`roofeen bil Kuna wal Laqab”, said: He is religious scholars, erudite Faqih, noble traditionist, sage allamah, worshipper, moderate, religious, a man of high ethics, and a personality who got fame in knowledge, working and good style of writing.
14- Allamah Ibn Yousif, in the index of Sepahsalar Library (vol.I, p.399), said: He is the greatest among the scholars, Faqihs and traditionists.
15- The author who wrote on shaykh Yousif’s biography, in the foreword of “al-Hadaa’iq” (printed in Iran, 1315 A.H.), said: One of those who spend his time in this science (Fiqh), and worked for months and years in researching, one of those who was known for his favor and collected all necessary points about this science, is the erudite shaykh, the noble scholar, the unique of his era, the one who learned the science of tradition and narration, and the one who elevated the banner of favors to the highest place, the erudite researcher, the traditionist of his era, the one who could get the pearls of the precious sciences, shaykh Yousif…He (may Allah have mercy upon him) is one of those who has got priority in the field of researching in our time, and could solve the most difficult problems and dilemmas, and one of those who dived into the seas of narrations and could get every precious pearl. However, that’s usual for one who is from Bahrain.
1- The Answers of shaykh Ahmad son of shaykh Hasan al-Damastani al-Bahrani.
2- The Answers of shaykh Ahmad son of Yousif son of Ali son of Mudhaffar al-Soyoori al-Bahrani.
3- The Answers to the Bahbahani Issues, those issues came from Bahbahan. Those issues were introduced to him by sayyid Abdullah son of sayyid Alawi al-Bahrani (who were then living in Bahbahan). Those answers are kept with the hujjah sayyid Shihab al-Deen al-Mar`ashi al-Najafi (Qom).
4- The Answers to the Khishti Issues. (Ibraheem al-Khishti had asked him about them).
5- The Answers to the Shakhooriyyah Issues. (Sayyid Abdullah son of sayyid Husayn al-Shakhoori him about them).
6- The Answers to the Shiraz Issues.
7- The Answers to the Issues of Kazaroon. (These issues came to him from Kazaroon from shaykh Ibraheem son of shaykh Abdul Nabi al-Bahrani).
8- The answers to the issues of shaykh Muhammad son of Ali son of Haydar al-Qateefi. Perhaps these issues are also included in the issues mentioned in no.9).
9- The answers to the Ni`imiyyah issues. (Shaykh Muhammad son of Ali son of Haydar al-Ni`imi asked him about them). (1) These nine books were mentioned by our shaykh hujjah allamah al-Razi (May Allah maintain his shadow) in the second volume of his remarkable encyclopedia “Al-Qeemah al-Tharee`ah Ila Tasaaneef al-Shia”, under the letter “A”, under the title “the questions…”, and in the fifth volume under the letter “Geem”, under the title “the answers to the issues…”. We are referring to them here under the letter “A”, under the title “the answers to the issues…” as he referred to that in his book “Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain”.
10- The Fourty Hadiths on the virtues of Ameerul Mu’mineen (s.a.). He derived those hadiths from the Sunni sources and references. Our shaykh al-Razi, in his book “al-Tharee`ah” (vol.I, p.431), said: This book contains about 1000 parts. The first hadiths he has selected them from “Sharh al-Maqaamaat” by Matarzi (now kept in Sardar Kabuli Library).
11- I`laam al-Qasideen Ila Manaahij Usool al-Deen. The first part of this book “al-Tawheed” has been printed.
12- “al-Anwar al-Hiriyyah wa al-Aqmaar al-Badriyyah Fi Jawaab al-Masa’il al-Ahmadiyyah”. This book contains about 100 issues, and this book is named after “al-Heer” which is “al-Ha’ir al-Husayni” (s.a.). This book is a detailed permission letter. It also called “Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain”.
13- “Tadaaruk al-Madaarik Fi ma Howa Ghaafil `anhu wa Taarik”. It is annotation on the book called “Madaarik al-Ahkaam” by Faqih al-`Aamili sayyid Muhammad (the grandson of the Second Martyr). The part titled “al-Tahaarah wa al-Salaat” was printed. But he didn’t complete it because he was busy in writing his more important book “al-Hadaa’iq”, and he inserted many of his discussion with the author of “al-Madaarik” there.
14- Annotation on his book “Tadaaruk al-Madaarik”.
15- Annotation on “Sharh al-Shamsiyyah Fi al-Mantiq”.
16- Annotation on “al-Wafi” by the shaykh of intellectual and traditional sciences, the researcher traditionist al-Faydh al-Kashani. This book is a commentary on “Kitaab al-Saom” only.
17- Annotation on his book “Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain”.
18- Annotations and Commentaries on his book “al-Durar al-Najafiyyah”. This book has been printed with the original footnotes.
19- Annotations on the book “al-Hadaa’iq”; printed with the original footnotes.
20- “Al-Hadaa’iq al-Nadhira Fi Ahkaam al-`Itrah al-Tahira”; it is this book which is between our hands and ready for printing. It was first published sixty years ago and lasted four years. This book’s publishing performed in Tabriz from 1315 to 1318 A.H., in six volumes, while other cycles were of five volumes. This edition was from the book of Taharah to al-Dhihaar, and then it was accomplished by his student (his nephew) shaykh Husayn. We shall refer to this book later on.
21- “The Orations”, it contains the orations delivered in Fridays and celebrities. This book is kept with hujjah sayyid Shihab al-Deen al-Mar`ashi/
22- “Al-Durar al-Najafiyyah Min al-Multaqataat al-Yousifiyyah”; the author, in his book “Lu’lu’ah” said: This book deals with a science that no one has dealt with up to this day (1) He means the derivation of the rules in Usool from the hadiths and applying them in each hadith. He could collect every hadith from the Imams (s.a.) regarding the rules of Usool. This book was preceded by two important books: (a) al-Bihar (the great encyclopedia of Shia called Biharul Anwar), and (b) al-Wasaa’il (al-Fosool al-Muhimmah fi Usool al-Ayimmah). After that, the great scholar Abdullah Shubbar compiled a book named “al-Usool al-Asliyyah” which is kept with his grandson sayyid Ali Shubbar as a manuscript. We hope that this book shall be published by the support of a generous person. This book contains precious researches. Al-Ha’iri, in his book “Muntaha al-Maqaal”, said: It is a good book that contains sciences, issues and treatises. It also contains precious researches. Our shaykh allamah al-Razi, in his book “al-Thari`ah” (vol.VIII, p.140), said: This book contains important issues, and treatises of high ranks. It contains 70 gems, and seems to be that the author compiled it in al-Najaf al-Ashraf, and accomplished it on the 20th of Thil Qi`dah, 1177 A.H. and was published in 1307. The twelve prefaces of his book “al-Hadaa’iq” are mentioned in his book “al-Durar” with some differences.
23- A treatise in researching the meaning of Islam and belief, and that belief means confessing by mouth, believing in paradise, and acting according to principles [of Islam].
24- A treatise in the rule of syrup of dates and raisins.
25- A treatise in imitating a dead scholar preliminarily and continuously, and in the end there is an essay on the obligation of saying’s form in the contracts.
26- A treatise in the guardianship of a person to whom the matter of a girl’s marriage is related. He wrote this treatise in 1176.
27- “Salaasil al-Hadeed Fi Taqyeed Ibn Abi al-Hadeed”, an answering treatise on the Abi al-Hadeed’s book titled “Sharh Nahjul Balaghah”. He wrote a detailed foreword about imamate which worths to be published as an independent book. Two volumes of this treatise have been published up to this moment.
28- “al-Shihaab al-Thaaqib Fi Bayaan Ma`na al-Naasib wa Ma yatarattab `alayhi min al-Mataalib”.
29- “al-Risalah al-Salaatiyyah, Matnan wa sharhan”, he wrote this treatise in Karbalaa’ in 1170.
30- “al-Risalah al-Salaatiyyah al-Muntakhabah minha”, he wrote it in al-Najaf al-Ashraf in 1175.
31- Another brief treatise on prayer, probably the text of the first treatise on prayer (mentioned in no.29).
32- “al-Sawarim al-Qaasimah Li Dhohoor al-Jami`een min Weld Fatimah”. In this treatise, he forbids men from marrying two Fatimid women. He wrote it on 1169. No one contributed him in this treatise except our shaykh al-Hurr (q.s.). Shaykh Yousif isolated others when he declared that marrying two Fatimid women is forbidden, and that the marriage contract is baatil. The greater master al-Waheed al-Bahbahani (q.s.) had many treatises as answers to this treatise, detailed and summarized. Also his son had compiled a detailed treatise as answering to this book. Other eminent shaykhs have compiled many brief treatises also answering that treatise. It is worthy to mention that those four treatises of the author, have been written by one of his students, which are kept with our sayyid hujjah Shihaab al-Deen al-Mar`ashi al-Najafi. In the end of the last treatise, there written a brief foreword by great allamah shaykh Muhammad Mahdi al-Fatooni al-`Aamili. Here is the original text of that foreword: “In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate. That which our shaykh allamah (may Allay donate him health and security) is the research which absolutely accepted, and so, all are obliged to act according to what he had based on, especially on our unique method and favorite sunnah as to act according to the essence of the traditions although no eminent Faqih had declared that before, and the most mean Muhammad Mahdi al-Fatooni had written that.”
33- “`Aqd al-Jawaahir al-Nooraniyyah Fi Ajwibat al-Masaa’il al-Bahraaniyyah”. He was asked these issues by shaykh Ali son al-Hasan al-Biladi.
34- “Qaati`at al-Qaal wa al-Qeel Fi Infi`aal al-Maa’ al-Qaleel”. In this book, he discussed the scientific argumentation with the imam of intellectual and traditional science, the researcher and traditionist al-Faydh al-Kaashani (q.s.).
35- “al-Kashkool”, the real title of this book (as also mentioned in the book called “Lu’lu’ah”) is “Jalees al-Haadhir wa Anees al-Musaafir” or “Anees al-Musaafir wa Jalees al-Khatir” (as written on the “al-Kashkool” in its 1st and 2nd volumes). There were many alternations on the name of this book as mentioned before, but it was commonly known as the Kashkool of shaykh Yousif. This book was published in Bombay in 1291 A.H.
36- “Kashf al-Qinaa` `an Tasreeh al-Daleel Fi al-Radd `ala man Qaal Fi al-Ridhaa` Bi `Umoom al-Tanzeel”. In this book, shaykh Yousif discusses the demonstrations of the Sultan of researchers, al-Mawla al-`Imaad (Mir Damaad) regarding the latter’s saying of “`Umoom al-Manzilah”. The author compiled this book in Shiraz in 1149 A.H. A copy of this manuscript is kept in the library of Baadkoobi in Karbala’.
37- “Al-Konooz al-Muda`ah Fi Itmam al-Salaat Fi al-Hurum al-Arba`ah”.
38- “Lu’lul’at al-Bahrain Fi al-Ijaazah Li Qurratay al-`Ayn”. A detailed permission letter which he wrote for his two nephews, shaykh Husayn son of shaykh Muhammad and shaykh Khalaf son of shaykh `Abd Ali. This book contains the biography of most of the scholars of his era until the period of al-Sadooqayn. This book shows clearly his knowledge and experience about dignitaries and biographies. This book was annotated three times: (1) Annotations of the author himself on this book (as we mentioned before), (2) An annotation of Mirza Muhammad al-Tunkabuni (the author of “Qasas al-`Ulamaa’”, and (3) An annotation by Mirza Muhammad son of Abd al-Nabi son of Abd al-Saani` al-Nishaaboori al-Hindi (killed in 1232 A.H.). He summarized it and the author’s student (that is the grandson of allamah Majlisi) selected the rest of it.
39- “Al-La’aali’ al-Zawaahir Fi Tatimmat `Aqd al-Jawaahir, Fi Ajwibat Masaa’il Li Thalik al-Saa’il”; it contains (22) issues, and he accomplished it in Jumadah al-Thaani in 1173 A.H. in Karbalaa’.
40- “Al-Risala al-Muhammadiyyah Fi Ahkaam al-Miraath al-Abadiyyah”. The author wrote this treatise for shaykh Muhammad (the nephew of Ahmad al-Bahrani). A copy of this treatise and the former one is kept in the Ja`fariyyah Public Library, in the Hindiyyah School (in Karbalaa’).
41- “Al-Samaa’il”. The author mentioned this book in his second foreword of his book “al-Hadaa’iq”. (see: vol.I, p.24).
42- “Mi`raaj al-Tanbeeh Fi Sharh Man La Yahdharhu al-Faqih”.
43- “Manaasik al-Hajj”; kept with shaykh Muhammad Salih al-Bahraani.
44- “Mizaan al-Tarjeeh Fi Afdhaliyyat al-Qawl Fima `ada al-Awwaleen bil Tasbeeh”. This copy is kept with the hujjah sayyid Shihaab al-Deen al-Mar`ashi al-Najafi.
45- “Al-Nafahaat al-Malakootiyyah Fi al-Radd `ala al-Soofiyyah”.
We have mentioned before to this book in the “Tamheed” (Foreword), and promised to continue our speech in this place. This book, because of its fame and because of the ideas of eminent scholars regarding it, does not need to be described or eulogized. It is comprehensive book which has not been compiled before by the companions. It is believed that the author had compiled this book in order to suffice the readers from studying any other book regarding the same subject which is Fiqh, Hadith and reasoning, and away from heresies. We can say that this book contains a bunch of issues in Fiqh (in obligations and sunnahs, and it contains almost all fundamental principles, if not all of them. It also contains many sayings, ideas and the roots of demonstrations, and also all hadiths narrated from the Holy Person and the Holy Imams (s.a.) in the legal rules. He discussed the sayings of the scholars and their concepts concerning the traditions, so they have given the fatwas according to their exertion, ideas, and points of views, whether or whether not it was according to fame or consensus (in both of its parts). He then collected the proofs of each idea, and after that he begins discussing them with possible probabilities and criticize it. So, if he reaches a proof and that there was no place for a heresy, he refute it and disagree with it, and tries to strengthens that demonstration, and chooses what his exertion applies to him, as if he let’s one touches the truth or as if he sees the unseen through thin curtain. This virtue of him astonished the scholars who lived after him for his knowledge, acquaintance, and jurisprudence in fiqh and hadith, and also for his following the traces of the ancestors and their fatwas, and his knowledge about proofs, fatwas, and power of demonstration. So, everyone becomes sure when he says and everyone follows his demonstration. He was doing all that with simple language and rhythmic speech, supported with logic, until it (i.e. the book) became the hope of the faqih, the target of a traditionist, and the goal of a researching mujtahid. For this reason, the book became famous along the centuries and remained as new as possible, and became the pioneer of other books in fiqh, according to the eulogy made by those who have read the book.
1- The authr, in his book “al-Lu’lu’ah” said: … and this is our book which, thanks God, no one made one like it, and no one preceded us in writing about this subject, because it contains all texts that are concerned with an issue, and the whole sayings and fundamental principles of each issue, except those which have been forgotten unintentionally. (Until he – may Allah have mercy upon him – reaches:) in general, we aimed that no one shall look for any other book except ours when he wants to trace narrations or books on reasoning. Therefore, it became a huge book and comprehensive like a sea that contains marvelous pearls.
2- The author’s student, the master of biographies, Abu Ali al-Ha’iri, in his book (Muntaha al-Maqaal): It is a remarkable book which no one had compiled one like it. The author collected all sayings and traditions that have been narrated from the Pure Imams.
3- The great researcher, al-Tasturi, in al-Maqaabis said: He has compiled many books and all of them are like pearls, and are more precious than necklaces. One of those books, and the most famous among them, is the book of al-Hadaa’iq.
4- The researcher al-Khunsaari, in al-Rawdhaat, said: The author of al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah, al-Durar al-Najafiyyah, Lu’lu’at al-Bahrain, …etc of precious compilations by which the souls gain pleasure by reading them, and the eyes become pleased.
5- The author of al-Durar al-Bahiyyah said: He wrote many books, and his books became famous especially the book of (al-Hadaa’iq) which is peerless.
6- The author of al-Rawdhah al-Bahiyyah said: The author of al-Hadaa’iq is the most eminent among this sect, with great sum of knowledge, good compilations, pure speech, and expert in traditions of the Infallifable Imams (s.a.). His knowledge and good method of research are manifested in his compilations especially al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah, which deserves to be written with light on the cheeks of Huris. All those who came after him benefited from this book.
7- Our shaykh allamah al-Noori said: He has many other comprehensive and precious compilations, but the best among them is al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah, then al-Durar al-NajafiYyah.
8- The seal of the traditionists, shaykh Abbas al-Qummi, in his book “al-Fawaa’id al-Radhawiyyah, said: … he is the author of many useful and precious books, but the most precious among them is al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah Fi Ahkaam al-`Itrah al-Tahirah. It is a remarkable book with great use.
9- The author of Anwar al-Badrayn said: He is the author of al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah and many other precious compilations.
10- Our shaykh Hujjah and great researcher allamah al-Ameeni – may Allah please us with his existence – in his book Shuhadaa’ al-Fadhilah said: … and his famous book al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah which is known among the faqihs refers to his huge knowledge and experience in sciences especially Fiqh and Hadith.
11- The eminent allamah Ibn Yousif al-Shiraazi in the Index of Sepahsalaar’s Library: The book of al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah is the best one among the Shite books on Fiqh. It contains the whole fatwas of fiqh and their proofs from Qur’an and traditions. Therefore, it became the best book among the scholars of the Ummah in spite of their religious dispute.
12- The writer of shaykh Yousif’s biography said in the foreword of the first edition of al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah: One of the books which the author has compiled in a very compact method and fine style is the book of al-Hadaa’iq al-Naadhirah Fi Ahkaam al-`Itrah al-Tahirah. This book has indeed contained that which no other book has done before. The author explained the issues and he did that in the best way, and showed the proofs with sufficient proofs. It contained roses that became more beautiful than a orchard filled with brilliant flowers, and illuminating researches that even the spring is shy to bring light like that, and the author discussed issues that were not discussed before when he showed their proofs, and he could sail in seas through which no diver could reach that depth before him. It is a book contains all proofs and sayings, and includes many fundamental principles. It is compiled in good manner and contains fine researches and noble issues.
As for the sentences of eulogy on this book in the books of Fiqh, they are many and it is difficult to collect all of them. The books of Fiqh are filled with examples from this book, and have conveyed many of his ideas and demonstrations. This book, and from the moment when the author finished it became the river from which the faqihs may satisfy their thirst, and was discussed in the scientific centers. You may not find a faqih who is not deriving from it. Moreover, many of the faqihs were fond of it and when they were mentioning to it, they were even conveying a half of the page without changing its sentences. Many other authors have made long and detailed annotations on the book. Below, are some of annotations and footnotes we have found among the books:
1- An annotation by the author published with the footnotes of the original text as first edition denoted to by (Minhu = from him).
2- An annotation by the author’s student the famous faqih sayyid Ali Tabataba’I Ha’iri (the author of “al-Riyaadh, d. 1231 A.H., and buried with his maternal uncle al-Waheed al-Bahbahaani in the porch.
3- An annotation by sayyid Mirza Ibraheem Fasaa’I Shiraazi (the Grandson of eminent allamah sayyid Ali Khan the Great). A copy of this annotation is kept in the Library of Kashiful Ghitaa’.
4- An annotation by sayyid Ibraheem son of Muhammad Musawi Kermanshahi Ha’iri (d. before 1300 A.H.). A copy of this annotation is kept with our shaykh hujjah allamah al-Razi.
5- An annotation by the contemporary eminent allamah Ibn Yousif al-Hadaa’iqi al-Shiraazi (a grandson of the author).
6- An annotation by our shaykh allamah and researcher hujjah shaykh Muhammad Taqi Irwaani. He took the responsibility to edit the book and did his best to specify the traditions’ chains, and checked its dignitaries and chains of transmission according to their references. He was able to publish the book in the best shape. Some other eminent scholars were not satisfied with the mere text of the book so they made annotations to it and dealt with it in details, trying to make a kind of polite argumentation with free criticizing. Some of them are as follows:
1- The traditionist and researcher sayyid Muhsin al-A`raji al-Kadhimi (d. 1227 A.H.). He explained two of the twelve forewords of the book. He may have discussed him in some issues too.
2- Eminent allamah Agha Mahmood son of Agha Muhammad Ali Kermanshahi (d. 1269 A.H., the grandson of al-Waheed al-Bahbahaani. He explained the book al-Hadaa’iq in a book and called it “al-Jannah al-Waaqiyah”.
3- “Al-Radd `ala Muqaddimaat al-Hadaa’iq”, a book by some eminent scholars have taken many titles like “He said… I say”, which contains many questions (may be 23 questions).
Unfortunately, the author had not enough time to reach his goals in completing the book “al-Hadaa’iq” because he died before he could accomplish the whole cycle’s parts of Fiqh, and so, it remained uncompleted. In spite of his attempt, he only could reach the book of “al-Dhihaar”, but his eminent student (his nephew) our great shaykh and noble researcher Husayn was able to compile a book called “`Uyoon al-Haqaa’iq al-Nadhirah Fi Tatmeem al-Hadaa’iq al-Nadhira” or “Al-Haqaa’iq al-Nadhirah Fi Tatmeem al-Hadaa’iq al-Nadhira” which was published in Najaf Ashraf in 1354. This book contains nine parts on Fiqh: (1) al-Dhihaar, (2) al-‘Ilaa’, (3) al-Li`aan, (4) Setting free, (5) Confession, (6) ji`alah, (7) Belief, (8) Vow, and (9) Kaffaraat. Some of the scholars call the same book as “al-Haqaa’iq al-Fakhirah”, and may be this is the name of the second part which is ended by the Fiqh. We beg Allah the Exalted to support us to publish this completion, by His Will. We will refer to the author’s biography and some of his works in (His Family).
He who studied the works of our shaykh and noticed his scientific compilation may understand the high rank of his literature and was shocked by his eloquence and the style of his speech and the method of composing his sentences. Therefore, he would realize that the author of those books has enough knowledge in literature sciences and eloquence. This is one of his virtues which distinguishes his books from the books of other authors, especially His book “al-Hadaa’iq”. Also the author has a great book on the Fridays and Feasts’ orations which contains very eloquent orations and precious preaching, which shows the readers clearly that this author has great knowledge in literature and its sciences. He also has many eloquent treatises and literary argumentations. Ten of these treatises are kept in the second part of his Kashkool. Moreover, he was not only expert in rhythmic sentences, but he also showed great art in prose where he could express his feelings with fine style, and he were sending some of those poems to his brothers and friends, but unfortunately no one of his poems reached us except those written in his Kashkool (two poems which had sent to his brothers complaining for them about the calamities he encountered. He sent one of them when they traveled to India in 1141 A.H., and the other poem during the arrival of his brother allamah shaykh Muhammad from India to Mecca). Another poem he sent to one of his friends is kept in his Kashkool (vol.II, p. 338). One poem in which he eulogizes Amirul Mu’mineen (s.a.) during his travel to Iraq in 1156.
He (may Allah have mercy upon him) died in the afternoon of Saturday the 4th of Rabi`ul Awwal 1186, and he was then about eighty years old. He employed his life in serving knowledge and religion, and sacrificed himself in the way of compiling books on Fiqh, and spent it in collecting the scattered traditions reached us from the Imams of the revelation’s House (s.a.) and distributed it among the religious people. May Allah make his soul holy, and his tomb illuminating, and may He reward him on behalf of His Prophet and Imams. He died (may Allah have mercy upon him) answred the call of his Lord after he had led the leadership of the religious authority for about twenty years. When the people of Karbalaa’ knew about his demise, they gathered to participate in the funeral of a body which worshipping and piety have made it weak, and his studying the fiqh of Prophet’s House (s.a.). The day of his demise was unforgettable, and he was accompanied by his fellow citizens and many other people, while the scholars, especially the unique leader and great researcher al-Waheed al-Bahbahaani (q.s.), were preceding them. His students Haj Ma`soom and shaykh Muhammad Ali son of al-Sultan undertook washing his pure body. Professor al-Waheed led the Mayyit prayer according to his will and he was buried in the holy al-Haa’ir, in the pure Husayni porch, near the legs of the martyrs. It worthy to mention that the great researcher al-Waheed (d. 1208 A.H.), and their student (the nephew of al-Waheed) our sayyid al-Tabataba’I (d.1231 A.H., and the author of al-Riyaadh) were buried beside him, in a wooden ark. The majlis of Fatiha was held in many places in Karbalaa’ and in other Shia cities, especially in the capital of the Shia, Najaf Ashraf. The first who held the ceremony of Fatiha was his eminent student our noble sayyid Ayatullah Bahr al-`Uloom.
Many of poets of that time have mourned him, but we shall only refer to the poem of the literate poet sayyid Muhammad Aal sayyid Razeen. The poet dates this ceremony in his poem:
O the grave of Yousif! How could you contain the glory,
And how could you encompass the one who cannot be encompassed?
His books began to mourn him, and they complain this calamity.
Like (al-Hadaa’iq) of science, from the knowledge of flowers from which many eminent scholars were picking their own knowledge.
The swords of the enemy flied over the gathering, and began to smash them with thunder.
After him, the rings of the chains were loosed, while Yousif was the one who joining them together.
And the necklace of pearls was loosed, that necklace which decorated the neck of many noble persons.
Our tears shall irritate your soil.
O Yousif, the remaining of Ahmad(s.a.)! May you be rewarded by the decorated paradises.
You have dwelt in a paradise furnished with carpets.
From the moment you became absent, all of us became like Ya`qoob who were weeping for his losing his son Yousif.
You have spent one part of the time which was made as history, and you have made the heart of religion abscessed.
In the book titled “Anwar al-Badrayn” it said that one of the poets recorded shaykh Yousif’s death as follows:
“Like the weeping of Yousif when he was explaining the dreams.”
Allamah Boroujerdi, in the book of “Nukhbatul Maqaal”, said: And Yousif son of Ahmad al-Bahrani, an eminent shaykh and the power of the chiefs; he has got a book called “al-Hadaa’iq” in which he has told every thing.
 One of those faqihs is sayyid Asadullah Isfahaani (the son of the great leader al-Shifti al-Isfahaani. [See the biography in al-Kiraam al-Bararah, vol.1, p. 126].
 It is also written that it was in the years: 87, 88, and 89. But the correct year is that which we have recorded here, and thus the year of his death which has been mentioned in a verse of poem becomes true.
 We didn’t refer to his piety because we were satisfied with the sayings of the eminent personals about him.
 His eminent student the biographer Au Ali al-Ha’ri had described this day in details in his book (Muntaha al-Maqaal).